The Brink Of War
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Although both Eisenhower and Dulles wanted to achieve goals similar to those of Kennedy, they were rather the more concerned with cost. In order to avoid both escalation and humiliation, Kennedy highlighted the importance of adequate flexibility and disregarded cost. Prior to nuclear war, Kennedy wished to increase the range of available options. He also believed that the European allies should be contributing more to their own defense.
Fundamentally, the notion of flexible response was to "increase the ability to confine the response to non-nuclear weapons". It started on June 25, , and armed hostilities ended with the Korean Armistice Agreement on July 27, ; however, this ceasefire was not a Treaty under International Law.
While it contradicted the report, in that the United States was once again at war the report stated that the United States should avoid war , President Harry S. Truman feared a 'domino effect,' and wanted to prevent Communism spreading, stating:. If we let Korea down, the Soviets will keep right on going and swallow up one piece of Asia after another If we were to let Asia go, the Near East would collapse and no telling what would happen in Europe Korea is like the Greece of the Far East. If we are tough enough now, if we stand up to them like we did in Greece three years ago, they won't take any more steps.
Led by Gen. While Truman believed that the North Korean atomic threat was "a threat based on contingency planning to use the bomb, rather than the faux pas so many assume it to be," and hence not just brinkmanship , he continuously opted for limited war.
His beliefs in ceasefire and peacekeeping between the North and the South were cause for great conflict with MacArthur, who sought total war. MacArthur believed that the United States should take the opportunity to wipe out communism permanently before it grew stronger, using all of its weapons, hence turning the war into nuclear war. As historian Bruce Cumings noted,  the Korean War heightened the Cold War, bringing both nations closer to a nuclear war. The United States wanted to ensure that the United Nations wouldn't fail, as it had done with the League of Nations , and hence wanted to show off its power to the world.
Additionally, it wanted to exhibit that it could still tame the communist threat, now also present in Asia. Similarly, the Soviet Union wanted to demonstrate its newly built military strength to the United States. Between and , "the refugee flow continued at a rate of , to , annually" with people moving from the East to the West. The economic conditions were better in West Berlin than in East Berlin, and therefore attracted more young workers.
Trying to find a way to stop the people from moving, Walter Ulbricht , president of East Germany, pressured the Soviet Union to help with the matter of Berlin and emigration. Khrushchev wanted the Western Allies to either leave Berlin or sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany, fearing that West Germany would economically and politically overwhelm East Germany, in turn undermining the Warsaw Pact that the Soviet Union dominated.
On November 10, , Nikita Khrushchev delivered a speech in which he demanded that the Western Powers pulled out of Western Berlin within six months. Furthermore, Khrushchev declared that East Germany was to take control of all communication lines and therefore, West Berlin would only be accessible by the permission of East Germany.
Interpreting Khrushchev's speech as an ultimatum, the United States, France, and Britain declined the ultimatum and said that they would remain in West Berlin. In , the Big Four powers held a conference in Geneva where the foreign ministers attempted to negotiate an agreement on Berlin. However, the conference did not do much, other than open up talks between the Soviet Union and United States. The United States refused to give up the freedom of West Berliners.
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In , Khrushchev met with Kennedy and they continued to solve the issue on Berlin. As a result, Kennedy increased military and defense expenditures. The barbed wire was later changed to cement walls. This prevented the movement between the two sides. The division between the two Berlins was known as "The Berlin Wall".
The United States heavily condemned the Berlin wall and responded by placing troops on the West German side. Their actions were followed by Soviet Union, when they placed their troops and tanks on the East German side. This led to the iconic image of tanks facing each other at " Checkpoint Charlie ", which symbolized the East-West division, which is the division of the east and west parts of Germany.
Any action taken by either of the troops had the possibility of resulting in a nuclear war between the USSR and the US.
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As a result, in the summer of John F. Kennedy met with Khrushchev in Vienna in order to try to find a solution regarding the problem of Berlin. Kennedy suggested Khrushchev to remove the Soviet troops, after which the United States would remove their troops. However, they found no solution, because neither side was ready to make concessions. The conference ended with Khrushchev issuing another ultimatum to the United States, giving them six months to get out of Berlin.
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The division of Berlin had become a symbol for the success of capitalism and showed a sharp contrast between the communist and capitalist system. The crisis was caused by the placement of Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, an island that was within the " Sphere of Influence " and launching distance of the US.
The US responded to the presence of the weapons by blockading Cuba. It can be argued that Brinkmanship, in this case, went too far. Had the US left the weapons where they were they would have been a threat to the majority of the American population, in the case of a Cuban missile strike.
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In either of the cases, retaliation could have led to a full-scale nuclear war. Had any of the two superpowers been pushed over the brink the lives of millions of people would have been at stake. Successful brinkmanship, however, is when you push your enemy to the brink of war, but not over it, getting him to back down under the pressure.
Considering this, Brinkmanship during the Cuban Missile Crisis was successful, as war was avoided. The crisis, however, was a peculiar case of brinkmanship since the two opposing powers had near equal power  during the crisis.
Thus, in order to avoid war, both powers backed down and compromised, the Soviets removing their weapons from Cuba and the Americans secretly agreeing to remove missiles from Turkey. The US was building up its missiles, with President Eisenhower issuing the National Defense Education Act in , which was an attempt to close the missile gap with the Soviets.
It gave funds to U. Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president of the United States on January 20, As well as the buildup of conventional arms, military technology was also improved.
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