Journal of a Voyage to Brazil

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In Mexico, in Peru, m Chili, the conquerors encountered a people civilised and humane; acquainted with many of the arts of polished life agriculturists and mechanics knowing in the things belonging to the altar and the throne, and waging war for conquest and for glory. The early part of the history is almost entirely taken from Mr.

It would have been easy for me to have referred to the Southey. In Mexico, in Peru, in Chili, the conquerors encountered a people civilised and humane; acquainted with many of the arts of polished life agriculturists and mechanics knowing in the things belonging to the altar and the throne, and waging war for conquest and for glory. But the savages of Brazil were hunters and cannibals they wandered, and they made war for food few of the tribes knew even the cultivation of the mandioc, and fewer still had adopted any kind of covering, save paint and feathers for ornament.

The slave hunting, which had been on the first occupation of the land, and more especially systematic after the discovery of the mines, had diminished the wretched Indians, so that the introduction of the hardier Africans was deemed and if here and necessary they now people the Brazilian fields Indian aldea is there an to be found, the people are wretched, with less than Negro comforts, and much less than Negro spirit or inHence, while the original Mexicans and Peruvians form a dustry.

These jealousies have taken place, and though they did not arise principally out of the causes of the emigration and return of the Royal family, they were at least quickened and accelerated by them. He and his brothers were in search of new countries, and after touching at the Cape de Verd Islands, he steered to the south-west, till he came to the coast of Brazil, near Cape St.

Augustine, and coasted along as far as the river Maranham, and thence to the mouth ofthe Oronoco. He carried home some valuable drugs, precious stones, and Brazil wood but had lost two of his three ships on the voyage.. He made no settlement, but had claimed the country for Spain. Meantime Pedro Alvarez Cabral was appointed by Emanuel, of to the command of a destined to follow King Portugal, large fleet, the course of Vasco de Gama in the east.

Friday of the year Cabral dispatched a small vessel to Lisbon to announce his discovery, and then, without making any settlement, proceeded to India. On the arrival of the news in Europe, the King of Portugal invited Amerigo Vespucci from Seville, and sent him with three ships to After a long and distressing voyage they explore the country.

But as Brazil, as it now began to be called, did not promise that ample supply of gold which the Spaniards had discovered in their new countries, and which the Portuguese gained with less hazard from Africa, and fi'om the East, the country ceased for a time to excite the attention of government, and the first actual settlements This cannot be Bahia; for they say, that after coasting leagues they were in I8"S.

Could South Brazil Ever Become Its Own Country?

But in , Amerigo Vespucci having returned to the service of the resolved to take Spain, King possession of the new land which had been discovered and founding his daims on the grant of Alexander VI. They made Cape St.

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That extraordinary but unfortunate man was the first European whose eyes rested on the broad Pacifie. He had heard from the Indians of its existence, and resolutely set out to discover it, well aware of the dangers and difficulties he had to encounter. After twenty-five days of suffering and fatigue, he saw the South Sea he heard ofPeru, its mines, and its Hamas, its cities and its aqueducts, and he received pearis from the islands that lay in front of St. Miguel's where he walked sword in hand up to his middle into the water bay, and took possession for the King of Spain.

No one in Europe now doubted that the western way to the East Indies was discovered. Great hopes were therefore entertained from the expedition of Solis.

That able navigator made the coast of Brazil far to the southward of Cape St. The ships then put back to St. Augustines, loaded with Brazil wood, and returned to Spain. But the King Don Emanuel claimed these cargoes, and again remonstrated against the interference of Spain so enectually, that three years afterwards, when Magelhaens touched at BIo de Janeiro, he purchased nothing but provisions.

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Meantime several French adventurers had corne to Brazil, and had taken in their cargoes of Brazil wood, monkies and parrots, and sometimes plundered some of the weaker Portuguese traders. Antonio da Barre. Caramuru, however, was not permitted to go to Portugal but by means of a young Portuguese student at Paris he communicated his situation to the King Joam III. Shortly afterwards, Caramuru returned to Bahia, having agreed to freight two ships with Brazil wood as the price of his passage, ofthe artillery of the ships, and of the articles necessary for trading with the natives.

Still, however, as Brazil furnished neither gold, nor that rich commerce which the Portuguese derived from their Indian trade, it was pretty much left to itself for the first thirty years after its and then the discovery regulations adopted by the court were not, the most perhaps, The coast was advantageous for the country. Souza was probably deterred from fixing on the shores of that beautiful bay, by the number and fierceness of the Indian tribes that occupied them. Martim Affonso de Souza was no ordinary man his cares for his colony did not relax even after he had been recalled, and sent as governor-general to India, where he had before highly distinguished himself He introduced the sugar-cane from Madeira into his colony, and in it also the first cattle were bred.

Amaro, was imme. About the same time the Fidalgo Pedro de Goes attempted a settlement at Paraiba do Sul but after two years tolerable prosperity, he was attacked by the native tribe of Goaytacazes, and five years of warfare reduced him to the necessity of sending to Espirito Santo for vessels to remove his colonists. Vasco Fernandez de Coutinho began to settle Espirito Santo in the same year in which the former colonies had been begun.

The adventurers had a prosperous voyage. On their arrival they built a fort, which they Coutinho called N. The adjoining captaincy of Porto Seguro was given to Pedro de He sold his possesCampo Tourinho, a nobleman and a navigator. Bahia de Todo os Santos was, with its adjacent territory, given to Francisco Pereira Coutinho, a who had made himself a name fidalgo in India.

He nxed his abode at Villa Velha, where Caramuru had formed his little settlement, and two of his followers married the daughters of Caramuru. The bay, or reconcave of AU Saints, is a the magnificent harbour entrance appears to be a league in breadth but on the right hand, on entering, there is a shoal to dangerous large vessels, called that of St.

Antonio da Barre; and on the left, coral reefs running ofF from The country that surrounds it is so Itaporica. That nobleman, whose-early life had been passed in the East-Indian Portuguese wars, imprudente and cruelly disturbed the peace of the rising settlement, by the murder of a son of one of the chiefs. The 1 the following tale is not true, hope though my authority is good. The last colony whieh was founded during these ten eventful years was that of Maranham.

Three adventurers undertook this settlement the jointly. The most celebrated was Joam de Barros, the historian Alvares de father of the writer others were Fernam of the Andrada, and Aires da Cunha. Chronicle, Aires da Cunha, Barros's two sons, and nine hundred men, sailed in ten ships for their new possession, but were wrecked on the shoals so that it was long before any success attended the of Maranham Da Cunha was drowned, the sons of Barros slain by undertaking. The other Brazilians call the Pernambucans of Recife Marineros still.

Is this from the town or their nautica! The tribes in this neighbourhood appear to have been more civilised than those of the coast of Brazil, and consequently more formidable enemies to the rising towns.

Voyage 1 – Brazil 1828

He had afterwards perished in an attempt to make a settlement on its shores, and nearly the same fate had attended Luiz de Mello da Silva, who made a similar attempt on the part of Portugal. Cabeza de Vacca had also made his adventurous overiand from St. Catherine's, and after settling himself in the governjourney ment of Assumption, had conducted various expeditions of discovery, always in hopes of finding an easy way to the gold countries. In one of these he found traces ofthe adventurer Garcia, a Portuguese, who, under the orders of Martim Affonso de Souza, had, with five companions, undertaken to explore the interior of South America.

This man had by some means so conciliated the Indians, that he was followed by a very considerable army, and is said to have penetrated even into Tarija. Salvadors, by Thome de Souza, the first Captain General of Brazil, who carried out with him the first Jesuit missionaries. The temporal concerns of the new colony, derived inestimable advantage from the friendship and assistance of the patriarch Caramuru as to the spiritual, it was indeed time that some rule of faith and morals should find its way to Brazil.

Francis Xavier and, with regard to his steady attempts to protect as well as to convert the Indians, another Las Casas. Brazil was becoming an object of importance to the crown of The new settlement of Bahia was established on the Portugal. In four months there were houses, six batteries, a college for the Jesuits, a palace, and a customand a cathedral house were begun the whole was defended by a mud wall.

Journal of 1603 Dutch voyage along the coast of Brazil

About this time, a Spanish expedition destined for the river Plata one of the ships was wrecked off St. Vincent's, and to miscarried Hans Staade, one of the crew who survived and after various adventures fell into the power of the Indians, we are indebted for the most authentic and particular account of the Brazilian Savages. His see was fixed at St. Salvador's, or, as it is generally called, Bahia. In J, the first school was established in Brazil, by Nobrega, in the high plains of Piratininga, about thirteen leagues from the of San Vicente.

Anchieta was the school-master. Paul, and the establishment, and the infant colony rising round it, received the Anchieta was not on! His merits as a christian apostle and a man of literature, have disarmed even Mr.

Southey of his usual rancour against the Roman Catholic faith. Oh, that Mr. Southey would remember the quotation which he himself brings forward from Jeremy Zeal against an error is not always the best instrument to find out truth. Paul's bas since grown to be one of the most important towns in Brazil. His first acts were directed towards reclaiming the allied Indians from some of their most brutal practices, and to induce them to form settlements near those of the Jesuits. One powermi colonist alone refused to obey Mem de Sa ordered his house to be surrounded and instantly levelled with the Such an act was certainly calculated to inspire the Indians ground.

e-Journal of Portuguese History

Meantime an adventurer of no ordinary stamp, had formed a settlement in the finest harbour of Brazil, namely, that of Rio de Janeiro. In , he had been employed by Mary of Guise, at the entreaty of the French court, to convey her daughter the young Queen of Scots to France in he was engaged in the defence of Malta, against the Pacha Sinan and the famous Dragut Reis, and two years afterwards published an account of that campaign.

Having visited Brazil in , Villegagnon could not be insensible to the advantages that must arise to France from having a settlement there; and, on his return to Europe, he made such representations at court of these advantages, that Henry II. But nothing is so short-sighted as wickedness.

VIHegagnon's cause of the ruin of his Ten thousand enterprise. Accordingly, Mem de Sa, accompanied by Nobrega and two other Jesuits, attacked it in January, , while Villegagnon was absent in France, and demolished the works, but had not sufficient force to attempt forming a settlement; and had Villegagnon succeeded in returning with the recruits he expected, he would have found it Among these was Jean de Lery.

In , Estacio de Sa, nephew of Mem, was sent out n-om Portugal to form a settlement in Rio, but finding his means inadequate to contend with the Indians, led on by the few remaining French, he went to San Vincente for reinforcements these, however, only enabled him to keep up the war, and to maintain himself in a post he had fortified not far from the entrance of the harbour, and near the Sugar-loaf mountain, a bare and inaccessible rock, which, from a base of about four hundred feet, shoots up to a thousand in perpendicular height, on the west side of the bar. He therefore applied to his uncle for succour, who, collecting what force he could, led them in person, and arrived in the harbour on the 18th of January, On the 20th, St.

Mem de Sa now founded the city of St. Sebastian, more commonly called the city of Rio and for its security the Jesuits, with their Indians, fortifi'ed both sides of the entrance to the harbour, which is about four miles distant from the city across the bay. Before these works, however, or the wal! Southey says this spot is called Villa Velha. It was, however, most probably on the site of the present St. Under Mem de Sa the state had been so prosperous, that though he had been Captain-general far beyond the term of his original appointment, Don Sebastian, on assuming the crown, continued him in office for two years longer, and then named Luiz de Vasconcellos to succeed him.

That nobleman never reached Brazil. The fleet, in different divisions, fell in with French and English ships, and the Jesuits, save one, to use their own expression, received the crown of martyrdom, and the new governor was As soon as his death was known at killed in action off Tercera. Lisbon, Luiz de Brito de Almeida was appointed to his vacant office and Mem de Sa just lived long enough to witness the arrival of his successor. Nobrega, who had begun that system, on which the singular government of the Jesuits in Paraguay was conducted, had died a few months before, so that Brazil was deprived nearly at once of the two ablest men that had yet been concerned in its government.

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But Luiz de Brito did not succeed to the government of au Brazil. It was judged proper to divide the colony into two captaincies, Rio de Janeiro being the capital of the southern division, which included Porto Seguro and every thing to the south of it while Bahia reThere Luiz de Brito mained the capital of the northern districts.

The colony was at this period most flourishing, though not altogether able to do without occasional supplies from the mother But already the original mud-cottages, supported by framecountry.